ijsab.com logo

A Case of A Government-Mandated Online Transaction Standard Acting As A Technical Barrier To Trade in South Korea Nigel Callinan

A Case of A Government-Mandated Online Transaction Standard Acting As A Technical Barrier To Trade in South Korea

Author (s)

Nigel Callinan

Abstract

Technical Barriers to Trade can form formidable hurdles for Organizations seeking to sell products and provide services to specific countries. These barriers are frequently erected based on government-mandated standards. This paper discusses the use of Online Transaction Standards in South Korea and explores the effect the Standards had on competition and diversity when it came to the availability of service providers for the country’s domestic market.  The paper concludes that a small number of companies benefitted from the unique business ecosystem set up within an effectively closed market and this reliance on this ecosystem may have been a problem for Korean companies when trying to expand overseas.

Key words: Internet, Security, Encryption, Trade, Barrier, Technology, Korea.

Download PDF

Title: A Case of A Government-Mandated Online Transaction Standard Acting As A Technical Barrier To Trade in South Korea
Author:

Nigel Callinan

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3631315
Media: Online & Print
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 21/01/2020
Date of Publication: 30/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/454.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 173-184
First Page: 173
Last Page: 284
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Nigel Callinan (2020). A Case of A Government-Mandated Online Transaction Standard Acting As A Technical Barrier To Trade in South Korea. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 173-184.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3631315

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/454.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Nigel Callinan, Assistant Professor, Department of Global Business, Hannam University, South Korea.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3631315

ijsab.com logo

Toxicity Assessment of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) on Some Local Fish Species of Dinajpur Sathi Rani Modhok, Md Jahidul Islam, Bikash Chandra Sarker, Md. Shazadur Rahman & Md. Mamun Al Islam

Toxicity Assessment of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) on Some Local Fish Species of Dinajpur

Author (s)

Sathi Rani Modhok, Md Jahidul Islam, Bikash Chandra Sarker, Md. Shazadur Rahman & Md. Mamun Al Islam

Abstract

Four different fish species such as Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), Spotted snakehead (Channa punctatus), Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Tangra (Batasio tengana) were exposed to various concentrations of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) to investigate the toxic level of Diazinon and  mortality rate  of fish species. The various concentrations in which the fish species were exposed as 100, 200, 300 and 400 ppb including a control. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) on Climbing perch, Spotted snakehead, Stinging catfish and Tangra were 167.45, 182.90, 217.59 and 190.29 ppb respectively for 96 hours of exposure. Remarkable behavioral abnormalities were found during the exposure. The study was also undertaken to investigate and to compare the percentages of protein and fat content of the fish species before and after application of pesticide. Some water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity were also measured during the experiments. In this experiment the pH value was in the range of  6.87-7.92 and temperature was in range of 26 to 29 ℃ in presence of pesticide. Fish species showed various physiological and behavioural alterations as rapid opercular movement, erratic swimming, gulping, mucus secretion in response to various concentrations of pesticide. These alterations were more in higher concentrations. The protein and fat percentages of the fish species were reduced after exposure of pesticide during this experiment.

Key words: Toxicity; Diazinon; Local fish; Dinajpur.

Download PDF

Title: Toxicity Assessment of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) on Some Local Fish Species of Dinajpur
Author:

Sathi Rani Modhok, Md Jahidul Islam, Bikash Chandra Sarker, Md. Shazadur Rahman & Md. Mamun Al Islam

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3631291
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 25/01/2020
Date of Publication: 30/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/492.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 273-280
First Page: 273
Last Page: 280
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Sathi Rani Modhok, Md Jahidul Islam, Bikash Chandra Sarker, Md. Shazadur Rahman & Md. Mamun Al Islam (2020). Toxicity Assessment of Diazinon (Sabion 60 EC) on Some Local Fish Species of Dinajpur. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 273-280. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3631291

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/492.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Sathi Rani Modhok, (Corresponding Author), Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

Md Jahidul Islam, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

Bikash Chandra Sarker, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

Md. Shazadur Rahman, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

Md. Mamun Al Islam, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3631291

ijsab.com logo

Modeling a Sustainable Framework on Human Capacity Development of Selected Commercial Banks in Cameroon Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Egota Willy Nyambi & Vivian Neba Akosso

Modeling a Sustainable Framework on Human Capacity Development of Selected Commercial Banks in Cameroon

Author (s)

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Egota Willy Nyambi & Vivian Neba Akosso

Abstract

Human capacity development is a vital predictor of workers’ performance. Though limited scholarly attention has been devoted to this subject within the context of Cameroon, this study is geared towards modelling a sustainable framework on human capacity development of selected commercial banks in Cameroon. The research is qualitative case study design supported by the philosophies of subjectivism ontology and interpretivism epistemology covering ten (10) focus group involving thirty (30) employees sampled purposively from five commercial banking institutions in Cameroon. Data was sourced via in-depth-interviews and analysed using grounded theory. The validation of the analysis was supported by the concept of theoretical saturation involving open coding, axial coding and selective coding processes. The study revealed that seminars, education and coaching programs explained human capacity development structures in Cameroon commercial banks while; effectiveness and efficiency were identified benefits of human capacity development programs. Major constraints relate to language, time and financial supports. In order to improve on human capacity development, the study opined the needs for financial benefits and facilitation after training. This study recommends that an effective human capacity development program should incorporate both internal and external programs with specific attention on: seminars, education and coaching. Provision for linguistic, financial and time resources must be integrated. Lastly an effective training process must be sustainable for both the trainees and the bank.

Key words: Human capacity development, commercial banks, Cameroon.

Download PDF

Title: Modeling a Sustainable Framework on Human Capacity Development of Selected Commercial Banks in Cameroon
Author:

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Egota Willy Nyambi & Vivian Neba Akosso

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3628503
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 19/01/2020
Date of Publication: 27/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/488.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 213-226
First Page: 213
Last Page: 226
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Egota Willy Nyambi & Vivian Neba Akosso (2020). Modeling a Sustainable Framework on Human Capacity Development of Selected Commercial Banks in Cameroon. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 213-226.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3628503

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/488.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Ph.D (corresponding Author), ICT University, Cameroon.

Egota Willy Nyambi, ICT University, Cameroon.

Vivian Neba Akosso, ICT University, Cameroon.

 

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3628503

ijsab.com logo

Modeling Critical Survival Factors of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Cameroon Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Mamiafo Hermine Joelle & Susannash Limunga Esowe

Modeling Critical Survival Factors of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Cameroon

Author (s)

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Mamiafo Hermine Joelle & Susannash Limunga Esowe

Abstract

The survival of SMEs is a crucial commitment for the attainment of economic emergence by 2035. However, the sustainability of majority of SMEs has been highly critical as they are confronted by disparate challenges. To this effect, this study seeks to model a survival framework of SMEs in Cameroon. The proposed model is developed based on the philosophical underpins of interpretivism epistemological and subjectivism ontology. A composition of ten focus group (10) consisting of fifty (50) SMEs operators’ was purposively sampled and data for the analysis was gotten through in-depth interview technique. The analysis of qualitative data was completed using the provisions of grounded theory approach to achieve theoretical saturation through open, axial and selective coding processes. The study revealed that high taxes are the major impediment to the success of SMEs. However, other evolving reasons include: lack of management skills, poor leadership abilities and insufficient assets. The study further identified proposed survival strategy for SMEs which constitute an integration of both financial resources and appropriate composition of management skills. The study concludes that survival cannot be guaranteed if these variables are treated in isolation. However, specific attention to the survival strategy include: taxes reduction, availability of credit facilities and development of managerial capacity of SMEs operators. Based on these outcomes, the study suggests that government should reduce taxes and ease financial credits to SMEs as survival strategies.

Key words: Survival Factors, SMEs, Cameroon, Economic Emergence.

Download PDF

Title: Modeling Critical Survival Factors of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Cameroon
Author:

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Mamiafo Hermine Joelle & Susannash Limunga Esowe

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3628480
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 19/01/2020
Date of Publication: 27/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/487.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 201-212
First Page: 201
Last Page: 212
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Mamiafo Hermine Joelle & Susannash Limunga Esowe (2020). Modeling Critical Survival Factors of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Cameroon. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 201-212.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3628480

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/487.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Alain Vilard Ndi Isoh, Ph.D (corresponding Author), ICT University, Cameroon.

Mamiafo Hermine Joelle, ICT University, Cameroon.

Susannash Limunga Esowe, Ph.D. ICT University, Cameroon.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3628480

ijsab.com logo

The Study of Budget on the Basis of ABC and ABB Activities Dlshad Mohammedsaleh Yousif

The Study of Budget on the Basis of ABC and ABB Activities

Author (s)

Dlshad  Mohammedsaleh Yousif

Abstract

The cost system based on activities ABC is one of the important modern technologies and has a large share of theoretical studies and foreign and Iraqi applied research. Since this system exists, it is subject to many research and studies to derive from it new techniques and tools that would support the provision of appropriate information for management to be used in areas Many of them make decisions, measure and evaluate performance. The problem search continued economic units in the region of Kurdistan in the traditional follow methods in measuring the cost of their products which resulted in the emergence of many problems when determining the cost of products. The objective of the research is to clarify the general requirements and steps for applying modern methods ABB and ABC. Learn how to deal with indirect costs under the use of the cost system based on ABC activities. The importance of this research as sheds light on the importance of the system cost based on the activities of ABC are not limited to achieve the accurate measurement of the costs, or offer of detailed information, but extends it represents a sound basis for the management of activities and processes of economic unity through integration with some of the methods and administrative techniques Modern as TOM, ABB, JIT. The ABC system divides the economic units into sub-activities and analyzes them and knows how they consume costs and the extent of their contribution to the production process, which leads to a reduction in costs by knowing which activities add value or do not add value to production and dispense with activities that do not add value. The ABC system of cost-based activities assists management in making appropriate management decisions based on more realistic costs, which are useful in various fields such as those related to pricing.

Key words: Budget, Cost systems, ABC, ABB and Kurdistan.

Download PDF

Title: The Study of Budget on the Basis of ABC and ABB Activities
Author:

Dlshad  Mohammedsaleh Yousif

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3611932
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 14/01/2020
Date of Publication: 18/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/482.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 60-71
First Page: 60
Last Page: 71
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Dlshad  Mohammedsaleh Yousif (2020). The Study of Budget  on the Basis of ABC and ABB Activities. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 60-71.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3611932

 

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/482.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Dlshad  Mohammedsaleh Yousif, Department of Accounting, Paitaxt Technical Private Institute, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

 

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3611932

ijsab.com logo

The Study on Environmental Management Accounting: ISO 14000 in Determining the Preventive Environmental Costs Soran Abdullah Mustafa

The Study on Environmental Management Accounting: ISO 14000 in Determining the Preventive Environmental Costs

Author (s)

Soran Abdullah Mustafa

Abstract

The objective of this study is to examine the problem of lack of awareness by organizations of the importance of environmental management accounting and its role in determining environmental costs, improving environmental performance and the lack of interest in the environmental management system which is considered environmental management accounting one of its tools, in the words Others, the actual impact of the EMS is somewhat low. Defining the concept of environmental management accounting in general, and environmental costs represented by the costs of environmental protection the costs of treatment emissions treatment and wastewater treatment using the environmental management accounting methodology. The need for environmental management accounting emerged due to the failure of traditional administrative-accounting in accounting. On environmental costs, which are allocated to calculating indirect industrial expenses instead of allocating them directly to the operations, products or activities that generated those costs one of the difficulties facing the application of environmental management accounting is the lack of a unified definition of environmental costs, each company classifies environmental costs according to their circumstances.

Key words: Environmental, Management, Accounting and Costs..

Download PDF

Title: The Study on Environmental Management Accounting: ISO 14000 in Determining the Preventive Environmental Costs
Author:

Soran Abdullah Mustafa

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3611007
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 14/01/2020
Date of Publication: 17/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/483.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 44-59
First Page: 44
Last Page: 59
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Soran Abdullah Mustafa (2020). The Study on Environmental Management Accounting: ISO 14000 in Determining the Preventive Environmental Costs. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 44-49.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3611007

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/483.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Soran Abdullah Mustafa, Salahadin University College of Administration and Economics, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

 

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3611007

ijsab.com logo

Fertilizer Use and Maize output in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from Selected African Countries Robert Moracha Ogeto & Birhanu Yimer Ali

Fertilizer Use and Maize output in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from Selected African Countries

Author (s)

Robert Moracha Ogeto & Birhanu Yimer Ali

Abstract

Fertilizer consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa countries has been found to remain low as compared to countries in similar level in other parts of the world. This has led to stagnation and declined yields in most crops across parts of Sub-Saharan Africa for several decades while that in countries that have increased fertilizer use have seen their agricultural productivity considerably increased over the years. This paper examines the effect of fertilizer use on maize output in selected African countries for the period 1990-2010 using data on fertilizer application rates. The data was analyzed using fixed effects regression based on a Cobb-Douglas production function. To take care of country differences in terms of production environments, country dummies were used in the fixed effects estimation. Empirical results indicated that maize output was positively and significantly correlated with land, labour, rainfall, aggregate fertilizer use, nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient fertilizers with land and labour having the highest effect on maize output in Sub-Saharan Africa To take care of rainfall vulnerabilities that could easily negate the positive effect of rainfall, supplementary irrigation measures should be put in place which could include rain water harvesting and small-scale water storage among maize producing households. Given the indication that fertilizer use was low despite its positive influence in maize output, it is recommended that strategies be put in place by relevant stakeholders in respective countries in a bid to boost aggregate and nutrient fertilizer use so as to further increase maize output and these could include price reduction strategies like subsidies and timely availability of fertilizer, reduction in import fee, clearance and warehouse charges at the ports of entry as a way of reducing the final market price. It could also be necessary for creation of more awareness among maize producers on the importance of adequate fertilizer use especially through agricultural extension workers and other relevant stakeholders.

Key words: Maize output; Aggregate Fertilizer use; Nutrient Fertilizer use; Fixed effects; Sub-Saharan Africa.

Download PDF

Title: Fertilizer Use and Maize output in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from Selected African Countries
Author:

Robert Moracha Ogeto & Birhanu Yimer Ali

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3610875
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 16/01/2020
Date of Publication: 17/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/485.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 31-43
First Page: 31
Last Page: 43
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Robert Moracha Ogeto & Birhanu Yimer Ali (2020). Fertilizer Use and Maize output in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from Selected African Countries. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 31-43.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3610875

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/485.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Robert Moracha Ogeto, PhD (corresponding Author), University of International Business and Economics, Beijing-100029, China.

Birhanu Yimer Ali, PhD, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing-                 100029, China.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3610875

ijsab.com logo

Environmental Literacy levels on Waste Management in Ibadan, Nigeria Areola, Jenneh; Olorunisola, Abel; Wahab, Bolanle & Areola, Abiodun Ayooluwa

Environmental Literacy levels on Waste Management in Ibadan, Nigeria

Author (s)

Areola, Jenneh; Olorunisola, Abel; Wahab, Bolanle & Areola, Abiodun Ayooluwa

Abstract

Waste management is at its lowest ebb in most towns and communities in Nigeria. Most parts of the city centres do not benefit from public waste disposal services. The goal of this study was to assess the level of environmental literacy in the management of solid waste in Ibadan, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to investigate the waste management practices, assess the level of awareness, their willingness to participate, concern for waste management, attitudes to waste management and governmental strategies used to educate residents about waste management in Ibadan. A total of three hundred and eighty four questionnaires were administered to randomly selected households. Key informant interviews were conducted with officials at the Oyo State Ministry of Environment and Oyo State Waste management Authority. Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the quantitative data. The statistical methods used included descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage. The result on waste management practices amongst residents showed that food waste was the most generated in Ibadan, followed by polythene and paper. With regards to awareness, findings showed that residents were generally aware of what waste is and also aware of waste management practices such as recycling and composting. The findings on attitude to waste management revealed that positive attitude was only exhibited towards the benefits of waste management while negative attitude was displayed toward the practicality of waste management. With regards to governmental strategies, result showed the major governmental strategies as public education through media jingles, community awareness campaigns, and inspection of market places, printouts and town meetings. One of the recommendation was that incentive based recycling programs should be introduced to encourage the practice amongst residents.

Key words: Waste, Management, environmental literacy, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Download PDF

Title: Environmental Literacy levels on Waste Management in Ibadan, Nigeria
Author:

Areola, Jenneh; Olorunisola, Abel; Wahab, Bolanle & Areola, Abiodun Ayooluwa

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3610828
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 02/01/2020
Date of Publication: 17/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/444.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 37-47
First Page: 37
Last Page: 47
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Areola, Jenneh; Olorunisola, Abel; Wahab, Bolanle & Areola, Abiodun Ayooluwa (2020). Environmental Literacy levels on Waste Management in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 37-47.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3610828

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/444.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Areola, Jenneh (Corresponding Author), Pan African University, Life and Earth Sciences          Institute (Including Health and Agriculture), PAULESI, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Olorunisola, Abel; Department of Environmental and Agric Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Wahab, Bolanle, Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Areola, Abiodun Ayooluwa, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

 

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3610828

ijsab.com logo

Alkalinity and Hardness of Natural Waters in Chittagong City of Bangladesh Md. Shajedul Islam & S.M.M. Hoque Majumder

Alkalinity and Hardness of Natural Waters in Chittagong City of Bangladesh

Author (s)

Md. Shajedul Islam & S.M.M. Hoque Majumder

Abstract

Alkalinity and hardness often used exchangeable when discussing water quality. These collective properties of water share some resemblances but are distinctly different but both has high mineral content. Generally, the water shows alkalinity due to the presence of weak acid and strong base resulting salt, typically as the form of bicarbonate salt and it can create some serious problems in water body. Hard drinking water, carry excess of Ca and Mg salt, may have moderate health benefits but can pose critical problems in domestic and industrial settings. Thus, it is important to assess the water quality with respect to hardness and alkalinity. The objectives of this study to provide an overview of alkalinity and hardness, an understanding of the importance of alkalinity and hardness from ecological perspectives and management, a summary of methods for measuring each, and the current state regulations for each in public waters of Chittagong city. The results obtained for pH, conductivity and alkaline ionic compositions from different surface and ground water samples of Chittagong city presented here with critical observations. For investigations, some related anions and metals examined by UV-visible spectrophotometer and FAAS utilizing Na-tetraborate after the pre-concentration on a column packed with Amberlite XAD-16 resin. The results show that some parameters such as salinity, total alkalinity and hardness; Na+, Ca2+, Cl, and HCO3 loaded in both surface and ground water is quite high than slandered value; other parameters like NO3, NO2, SO42-, PO43-, K+, NH4+, and Mg2+ levels are in permissible range. Overall, it may state that the water of studied areas is very hard, saline as well as alkaline and suggesting that water should not uses for household, irrigation, and industrial purposes without proper treatment.

Key words: Alkalinity; Salinity; Hardness; Water quality parameters; Spectrophotometer; Chittagong.

Download PDF

Title: Alkalinity and Hardness of Natural Waters in Chittagong City of Bangladesh
Author:

Md. Shajedul Islam & S.M.M. Hoque Majumder

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3606945
Media: Online and print
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 12/01/2020
Date of Publication: 14/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/451.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 137-150
First Page: 137
Last Page: 150
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Md. Shajedul Islam & S.M.M. Hoque Majumder (2020). Alkalinity and Hardness of Natural Waters in Chittagong City of Bangladesh. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 137-150.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3606945

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/451.pdf

 

 

 

About Author (s)

Md. Shajedul Islam (Corresponding author), Associate Professor, Chemistry; OSD, DSHE, Ministry of Education, Bangladesh & PhD Research Fellow, Institute of Environmental Science (IES), University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh

S.M.M. Hoque Majumder, Former Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3606945

ijsab.com logo

Firm Power in Industrial Chain and Debt Financing FAYE Nicolas D.M, FAN Libo, Conghui Hu, Kokou W. Tozo & Mouanda Gilhaimé

Firm Power in Industrial Chain and Debt Financing

Author (s)

FAYE Nicolas D.M, FAN Libo, Conghui Hu, Kokou W. Tozo & Mouanda Gilhaimé

Abstract

This article explores the impact of corporate value chain power on its external financing liabilities, public debt financing, and corporate performance. This study has collected cross-sectional data of 13,653 firms from the Corporate Bond Market from 2006 to 2016. The results show that the companies with greater power in the value chain have a lower proportion of financing liabilities. This finding indicates that companies with higher value chain power use less financing liabilities and tend to use non-cost commercial credit for financing. The empirical results show that although there is no significant relationship between the power of the corporate value chain and the convenience of public bond financing in all samples, for small-scale and high-growth enterprises, the greater the value chain power, the greater the scale of bond financing, the greater the cost, the lower the bond issue cost. Finally, this article reveals that small-scale, high-growth companies with higher value chain power have better financial performance.

Key words: Corporate Value Chain Power, Industry Chain, Debt Structure, Bond Financing, Corporate Performance.

Download PDF

Title: Firm Power in Industrial Chain and Debt Financing
Author:

FAYE Nicolas D.M, FAN Libo, Conghui Hu, Kokou W. Tozo & Mouanda Gilhaimé

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3606699
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Acceptance Date: 10/01/2020
Date of Publication: 13/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/481.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 1-30
First Page: 1
Last Page: 30
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

FAYE Nicolas D.M, FAN Libo, Conghui Hu, Kokou W. Tozo & Mouanda Gilhaimé (2020). Firm Power in Industrial Chain and Debt Financing. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(2), 1-30.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3606699

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/481.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Nicolas Diodji Mamadou FAYE (corresponding Author), PhD Candidate, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

FAN Libo, Professor, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

Conghui Hu, Associate Professor, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

Kokou Wotodjo Tozo, PhD, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

Mouanda-Mouanda Gilhaimé, PhD, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3606699

ijsab.com logo

Compressive Properties of Sawdust Composites Consisting of Sodium Silicate Solution and Corn Starch as Binder Chowdhury Al Mamun & Md Arifuzzaman

Compressive Properties of Sawdust Composites Consisting of Sodium Silicate Solution and Corn Starch as Binder

Author (s)

Chowdhury Al Mamun & Md Arifuzzaman

Abstract

Novel composite materials were manufactured using saw dust, sodium silicate solution and corn starch. Corn starch works as a reinforcement to the sodium silicate solution. The floatation method was utilized to obtain the wet mixture for manufacturing composites by compaction. The quantity of saw dust and sodium silicate solution were fixed and the starch powder content in the binder solution was the working variable. Starch powder content in the binder solution were 1.4 g, 1.6 g, 1.8 g and 2.0 g.   The gelatinization of starch is investigated to confirm the gelatinized solid starch content in the binder solution. Compression tests were carried out on the composites in the Universal Testing Machine at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. The density, compressive strength and modulus were found to increase with increasing gelatinized solid starch content. On the other hand specific compressive strength decreased with increasing density of the composite while specific compressive modulus showed an opposite trend. Comparing with the literature, the developed composites showed superior properties and were found to have practical applications.

Key words: Saw Dust, Sodium Silicate Solution, Corn Starch, Composite, Compressive Properties.

Download PDF

Title: Compressive Properties of Sawdust Composites Consisting of Sodium Silicate Solution and Corn Starch as Binder
Author:

Chowdhury Al Mamun & Md Arifuzzaman

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3605465
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 08/01/2020
Date of Publication: 12/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/450.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 129-136
First Page: 129
Last Page: 136
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Chowdhury Al Mamun & Md Arifuzzaman (2020). Compressive Properties of Sawdust Composites Consisting of Sodium Silicate Solution and Corn Starch as Binder. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 129-136.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3605465

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/450.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Chowdhury Al Mamun, Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh.

Md Arifuzzaman (Corresponding Author), Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical   Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh.

 

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3605465

ijsab.com logo

Evaluation of Models for Forecasting Daily Foreign Exchange Rates Between Nigerian Naira and US Dollar Amidst Volatility Maigana Alhaji Bakawu, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Shafiu Usman Maitoro & Abdulrahman Malik

Evaluation of Models for Forecasting Daily Foreign Exchange Rates Between Nigerian Naira and US Dollar Amidst Volatility

Author (s)

Maigana Alhaji Bakawu, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Shafiu Usman Maitoro & Abdulrahman Malik

Abstract

In her quest to put the nations’ foreign exchange policy in line with global practice, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in the mid of 2016 made a paradigm shift by unveiling flexible foreign exchange policy driven purely by market forces. Consequently, forecasting models reported during pegging policy era may be deeming obsolete. This paper proposed a prediction model for future daily selling exchange rate between Nigerian Naira and United States Dollar in the interbank market amidst volatility using daily rates made available by the Central Bank of Nigeria over the periods July, 2016 to October, 2017. We applied the Box-Jenkins methodology to the Naira – US Dollar exchange rate series in order to build an adequate and well specified prediction model. On the first phase of the study, we checked the stationarity of the series and based on Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and correlogram, the series is stationary at level. The findings revealed that the future daily exchange rate of Naira per US Dollar depends on its past rates and associated innovations. This is evident from the fact that  turned out parsimonious model for forecasting the parity between the two currencies on the basis of Bayesian Information Criterion. The said model yielded error of forecast (MAPE) within ten percent.

Key words: Autoregressive, Box-Jenkin’s Methodology, Exchange Rates, Moving Average, Naira, United States Dollar.

Download PDF

Title: Evaluation of Models for Forecasting Daily Foreign Exchange Rates Between Nigerian Naira and US Dollar Amidst Volatility
Author:

Maigana Alhaji Bakawu, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Shafiu Usman Maitoro & Abdulrahman Malik

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3601100
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 05/01/2020
Date of Publication: 08/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/448.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 95-105
First Page: 95
Last Page: 105
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Maigana Alhaji Bakawu, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Shafiu Usman Maitoro & Abdulrahman Malik (2020). Evaluation of Models for Forecasting Daily Foreign Exchange Rates Between Nigerian Naira and US Dollar Amidst Volatility. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 95-105.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3601100

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/448.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Maigana Alhaji Bakawu, (Corresponding Author), Department of Statistics, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Nigeria.

Ahmed Abdulkadir, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria.

Shafiu Usman Maitoro, Department of Statistics, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria.

Abdulrahman Malik, Department of Statistics, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Nigeria.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3601100

ijsab.com logo

The innovation strategy in the exports of Colombian Firms: A Resource Base View Juan Pablo Bojacá

The innovation strategy in the exports of Colombian Firms: A Resource Base View

Author (s)

Juan Pablo Bojacá

Abstract

On theory the internationalization of firms are the combinations of macro level and micro level specific resources. This research is aiming to understand the relationship between the technological innovation of firms (R&D, new processes product upgrade and new products/services) and the internalization by exports, to find which technological innovation increase the amount of export on the Colombian firms. The study support previously examined relationships between R&D (both internal and external), product, process innovations, and the degree of (export intensity) and advance on contemplating the internal and external exports. Empirical analyses carried out on this relationship provide useful implications for innovation policies i.e. public supports that aim at stimulating innovation performance and at encouraging innovative efforts in Colombian firms.

Key words: technological resources, innovations, R&D, Colombia.

Download PDF

Title: The innovation strategy in the exports of Colombian Firms: A Resource Base View
Author:

Juan Pablo Bojacá

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598508
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 03/01/2020
Date of Publication: 05/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/447.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 82-94
First Page: 82
Last Page: 94
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Juan Pablo Bojacá (2020). The innovation strategy in the exports of Colombian Firms: A Resource Base View. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 82-94.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3598508

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/447.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Juan Pablo Bojacá, PhD candidate, Business School, University of International Business and Economics (UIBE), Beijing, China

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598508

ijsab.com logo

The Effect of Inspiring Visit Desire, Forming Visit Awareness, and Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction Towards Behavioral Intention To Visit and Actual Visit Behavior at Kudos Café Surabaya Felicia Juliani Leliga, Ronald Suryaputra & William Santoso

The Effect of Inspiring Visit Desire, Forming Visit Awareness, and Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction Towards Behavioral Intention To Visit and Actual Visit Behavior at Kudos Café Surabaya

Author (s)

Felicia Juliani Leliga, Ronald Suryaputra & William Santoso

Abstract

The rapid competition of café and restaurant at Surabaya become an opportunity for entrepreneurs to develop their business by using high-tech marketing tools. One of the cafes is Kudos Café Surabaya. The purpose of this study were to determine the effect of Inspiring Visit Desire represented by Experiencing Appeal (EA) and Generating Empathy (GP), Forming Visit Awareness represented by Providing Image (PI) and Presenting Guide (PG), Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction represented by Social Influence (SI) and Cybercommunity Influence (CI) towards Behavioral Intention to visit (BI) and Actual Visit Behavior (AV) at Kudos Café. The method is quantitative research using AMOS. Data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 135 respondents. The results showed Experience Appeal (EA) with regression coefficient of 0.403 positive and significantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI); Generating Empathy (GP) with regression coefficient of 0.053 positive but  unsignificantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI); Providing Image (PI) with regression coefficient of 0.231 positive but unsignificantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI) too, Presenting Guide (PG) with regression coefficient of 0.264 positive and significantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI); Social Influence (SI) with regression coefficient of 0.360 positive and significantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI); Cybercommunity Influence (CI) with regression coefficient of 0.289 positive and significantly affect Behavior Intention to visit (BI); and Behavioral Intention to visit (BI) with regression coefficient of 0.817 positive and significantly affect Actual Visit Behavior (AV). The conclusion is Kudos Café needs improving the design performance of Instagram profile to attract the followers.

Key words: Inspiring Visit Desire, Forming Visit Awareness, Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction, Behavioral Intention to visit, dan Actual Visit Behavior.

Download PDF

Title: The Effect of Inspiring Visit Desire, Forming Visit Awareness, and Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction Towards Behavioral Intention To Visit and Actual Visit Behavior at Kudos Café Surabaya
Author:

Felicia Juliani Leliga, Ronald Suryaputra & William Santoso

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3597975
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 03/01/2020
Date of Publication: 05/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/446.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 66-81
First Page: 66
Last Page: 81
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Felicia Juliani Leliga, Ronald Suryaputra & William Santoso (2020). The Effect of Inspiring Visit Desire, Forming Visit Awareness, and Facilitating Interpersonal Interaction Towards Behavioral Intention To Visit and Actual Visit Behavior at Kudos Café Surabaya. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 66-81.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3597975

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/446.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Felicia Juliani Leliga, (Corresponding Author) Master of Management Student at Pelita Harapan University, Ahmad Yani Road number 288, 60234, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Ronald Suryaputra, The Lecturer of Master of Management at Pelita Harapan University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

William Santoso, The Lecturer of Master of Management at Pelita Harapan University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3597975

ijsab.com logo

Effect of Physical Environment Quality on the Customer Loyalty through Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction in De Soematra 1910 Restaurant in Surabaya Intan Fildzah Wijayati, Ronald Suryaputra & Amelia

Effect of Physical Environment Quality on the Customer Loyalty through Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction in De Soematra 1910 Restaurant in Surabaya

Author (s)

Intan Fildzah Wijayati, Ronald Suryaputra & Amelia

Abstract

This paper main aim is to maintain and improve restaurant performance becomes more competitive and seeks to improve customer loyalty for De Soematra 1910 restaurant in Surabaya and an interesting research model that can be applied to the De Soematra 1910 restaurant as an object in Surabaya which has an exclusive colonial style design (Dutch era) and has a unique vibes. A quantitative with data processing using AMOS. Data collection was carried out by distributing questionnaires to 250 respondents with the characteristics of male and female in the age range 18-60 years, have visited and had done fine dining at least 2 times in the last 6 months and monthly income between IDR 1,000,000,.- IDR 20,000,000,. at the De Soematra 1910 in Surabaya. The results showed that 9 hypotheses were accepted and 10 hypotheses were rejected. The paper also statistically shows significant and insignificant relationships between 7 dimensions of Physical Environment Quality (Aesthetics, Ambience, Lighting, Table Settings, Layout, Staff and Music) that affect Customer Loyalty through the dimensions of Perceived Value (Hedonic and Utilitarian) and Customer Satisfaction. The research findings present incremental implications for De Soematra 1910 restaurant marketing management. Findings recommend that manager, service providers – procedures and Physical Environment Quality elements would make service quality standards becomes high level preferred by the customers toward first class restaurant. This should subsequently helps the restaurant building their strong satisfaction, loyalty and positive image.

Key words: Physical Environment Quality, Perceived Value, Hedonic, Utilitarian,  Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty.

Download PDF

Title: Effect of Physical Environment Quality on the Customer Loyalty through Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction in De Soematra 1910 Restaurant in Surabaya
Author:

Intan Fildzah Wijayati, Ronald Suryaputra & Amelia

Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3597969
Media: Online
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 02/01/2020
Date of Publication: 05/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/445.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 48-65
First Page: 48
Last Page: 65
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Intan Fildzah Wijayati, Ronald Suryaputra & Amelia (2020). Effect of Physical Environment Quality on the Customer Loyalty through Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction in De Soematra 1910 Restaurant in Surabaya. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 48-65.  doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3597969

 

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/445.pdf

 

About Author (s)

Intan Fildzah Wijayati (Corresponding Author) Master of Management Department, Pelita Harapan University Surabaya Campus, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Ronald Suryaputra, Lecturer at Master of Management Department, Pelita Harapan University Surabaya Campus, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Amelia, Lecturer at Master of Management Department, Pelita Harapan University Surabaya Campus, Surabaya, Indonesia.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3597969

ijsab.com logo

Effectiveness of Training in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh Md. Zahangir Kabir, Jannatul Mawa, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Sourav Paul Chowdhury & Md. Jamal Uddin

Effectiveness of Training in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh

Author (s)

Md. Zahangir Kabir, Jannatul Mawa, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Sourav Paul Chowdhury & Md. Jamal Uddin

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of employee training in the banking sector of Bangladesh, where effectiveness is defined as the improvement of knowledge, skill, ability (KSA) and job performance. There were four predictors (training design, development and implementation of training, validity of training and facilitation of transfer) and two hypotheses were developed to conduct the study. To test the developed hypotheses data were collected from 120 bank employees through close ended questionnaire and convenience sampling were used to select the respondent. Multiple regression analyses were used as a statistical tool to test the impact of the factors on improvement of KSA and job performance. The findings reveal that training design and facilitation of transfer have significant influence on improvement of KSA and job performance. This study will help the managers and practitioner to understand why evaluation of training is so much important. Simultaneously, it will encourage managers to provide support, opportunity and other facilitations that are conducive to transfer training.

Key words: Training, Effectiveness, Banking, Performance, KSA.

Download PDF

Title: Effectiveness of Training in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh
Author: Md. Zahangir Kabir, Jannatul Mawa, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Sourav Paul Chowdhury & Md. Jamal Uddin
Journal Name: International Journal of Science and Business
Website: ijsab.com
ISSN: ISSN 2520-4750 (Online), ISSN 2521-3040 (Print)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3596360
Media: Online and Print
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Acceptance Date: 21/12/2019
Date of Publication: 02/01/2020
PDF URL: https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/441.pdf
Free download: Available
Page: 1-12
First Page: 1
Last Page: 12
Paper Type: Research Paper
Current Status: Published

Cite This Article:

Md. Zahangir Kabir, Jannatul Mawa, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Sourav Paul Chowdhury & Md. Jamal Uddin (2020). Effectiveness of Training in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh. International Journal of Science and Business, 4(1), 1-12. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3596360

Retrieved from https://ijsab.com/wp-content/uploads/441.pdf

 

 

About Author (s)

Dr. Md. Zahangir Kabir (Corresponding Author), Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Jannatul Mawa, Statistical Officer, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh.

Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Sourav Paul Chowdhury, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Dr. Md. Jamal Uddin, Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

 

 Download PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3596360